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Agreement Italy Libya

September 9, 2021 | By More

This chapter is divided into four sections. First, I illustrate Keohane`s argument and define the relevant terminology. Secondly, I present a brief historical digression of the Italian-Libyan agreements in order to lay the foundations for the third part, which deals with the types of agreements as such. By giving a historical overview of the `return flights` between October 2004 and March 2006, I will also respond to the criticisms made by a number of international organisations against Italy and Libya. [6] The fourth section applies the concepts of citizenship and the relationships between inequalities to empirical analysis. Focusing on the costs and benefits of Italian-Libyan readmission cooperation in broader migration negotiations, I analyse the overall dynamics of the negotiations and study the extent of power differences. In the last part, I conclude that the agreements embody a relationship between inequalities, because Italy has higher obligations and costs than Libya. However, I would also argue that this imbalance is recast in all bilateral agreements on migration, which are better defined by the notion of `diffuse reciprocity` but still unequal. [7] Talks between Italy and Libya on migration controls began in the late 1990s. A “joint communiqué” was signed on 4 July 1998. The importance of this agreement stems from Italy`s formal recognition of the suffering caused during the colonial period. In the period following the signing of the agreement, a series of meetings took place between the Italian and Libyan authorities, notably on migration issues.

This intensive debate led to the signing, in December 2000, of the Memorandum of Understanding on Drug Trafficking, Terrorism, Organised Crime and Illegal Immigration. The agreement entered into force after its ratification by the Italian Parliament on 22 December 2002. [16] In early November, Italy decided not to withdraw from the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) it had signed in February 2017 with the UN-backed Libyan Government of National Accord (GNA). The MoU has set up a framework for cooperation between Libya and Italy “in the field of development, in the fight against illegal immigration, trafficking in human beings and smuggling, as well as in strengthening border security”. Although it covers several topics, the agreement is widely interpreted as having been negotiated with a single objective: to reduce the number of irregular migrants travelling from Libya to Europe. But the MoU also contains political commitments that have often been overlooked. At first glance, one could say that the memorandum follows the lines of the EU-Turkey agreement and that it is a kind of agreement aimed at outsourcing migration control to a country that constitutes a decisive “gateway” to Europe. . . .

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